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Morphological changes of the posterosuperior glenoid on ultrasonography in adolescent baseball players
Arthrosc Orthop Sports Med 2020;7:22-29
Published online November 1, 2020;  https://doi.org/10.14517/aosm20011
© 2020 Korean Arthroscopy Society and Korean Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine.

Jung Hoei Ku, Hyung Lae Cho, Jong Min Kim

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Good Samsun Hospital, Busan, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyung Lae Cho, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7935-5055
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Good Samsun Hospital, 326 Gaya-daero, Sasang-gu, Busan 47007, Korea. Tel: +82-51-310-9289, Fax: +82-51-310-9348, E-mail: hljo88@hanmail.net
Received August 31, 2020; Revised September 27, 2020; Accepted October 2, 2020.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic changes of the posterosuperior glenoid (PSG) in adolescent baseball players.
Methods: We analyzed 132 consecutive adolescent baseball players (mean age, 13.4 years; height, 162.6 cm; weight, 58.9 kg; playing career length, 3.2 years) who underwent bilateral sonographic comparison of the PSG. Fifty-four players complained about shoulder pain and 79 players displayed posterior tightness of the dominant shoulder. Using the nondominant shoulder as a control, the PSG of the dominant shoulder was scanned on horizontal axis view with a linear-array transducer, and demographic factors related to PSG abnormalities were evaluated. All players were divided into groups based on distinctive sonographic abnormalities of the PSG: normal, beak, slope, and round types.
Results: Of the 132 players, 123 (93.2%) demonstrated abnormal PSG changes compared to the nondominant shoulder: beak type, 28.8% (38 players); slope type, 50.0% (66 players); and round type, 14.4% (19 players). Significant differences in mean age and length of playing career were identified among the different types: players with the beak type, slope type, and round type were a mean of 12.1, 13.8, and 15.6 years old (P = 0.002) and had a mean playing career length of 2.0, 3.5, and 5.4 years (P = 0.004), respectively. The mean slope angle of the slope type was 42.7°, and this angle was associated with the length of playing career (P = 0.035). Player position (P = 0.583), the presence of dominant shoulder pain (P = 0.739), and posterior shoulder tightness (P = 0.203) were not significantly associated with the type of PSG and slope angle.
Conclusion: Morphological changes of the PSG in the dominant shoulder occur very frequently in adolescent baseball players. Age and length of playing career were significantly associated with this physiologic remodeling process of the premature PSG.
Keywords : Posterosuperior glenoid; Adolescent baseball players; Ultrasonography
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November 2020, 7 (2)